Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet

Published: FASEB Journal, 2012
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3360149/ 

Background: Obesity is a condition linked to poor metabolism. The center of cellular metabolism are mitochondria – the powerhouse of the cell. 

Results: Mice were given either a diet containing ketone ester or a control diet containing the same number of calories. As compared to control mice, the ketone ester mice had more mitochondria and double the levels of the protein, uncoupling protein 1, which dissipates energy as body heat, thus burning more calories. (The mice receiving ketone ester also ate less voluntarily, requiring the researchers to restrict the intake of control mice so that both groups ate the same number of calories for the experiment.) 

Further Reading

“Metabolism” refers to how the body produces and uses energy. Ketones are a fuel source that are more efficient and metabolically cleaner than glucose. In an analogy to automobiles, one can think of a body running on carbohydrates and glucose like a gas-guzzling Hummer, whereas a body running on ketones is like an electric Tesla.

The TDS Ltd. ketone ester was developed with a $10 million grant from the United States military as part of their “Metabolic Dominance” program to enhance soldiers’ metabolisms, thus improving physical and cognitive performance. The ketone ester has since been shown to be a safe, well-tolerated, and effective way to increase ketone body levels, without the need for caloric restriction or restrictive high-fat ketogenic diets [1-3].

In addition to the studies referenced above, supplemental TDS Ltd. ketone ester ketone ester has been shown to improve the efficiency with which the heart produces energy, in association with improved exercise performance [4, 5], and shift metabolism towards a fat-burning state and increase the burning of fat stored in muscle tissue [6]. Studies are ongoing regarding the effects of our ketone ester on metabolism in healthy individuals and those with a wide range of diseases, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease.


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2. Stubbs, B.J., et al., On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans. Front Physiol, 2017. 8: p. 848.

3. Soto-Mota, A., et al., Safety and tolerability of sustained exogenous ketosis using ketone monoester drinks for 28 days in healthy adults. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2019. 109: p. 104506.

4. Sato, K., et al., Insulin, ketone bodies, and mitochondrial energy transduction. FASEB J, 1995. 9(8): p. 651-8.

5. Murray, A.J., et al., Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance. FASEB J, 2016. 30(12): p. 4021-4032.

6. Cox, P.J., et al., Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes. Cell Metab, 2016. 24(2): p. 256-68.